|Stream Calculation Worksheet
Fill in the water data below. This will assess stream & chemistry for the basic inorganic ions.
|Note: This template is for waters such as rivers, wells, plant cooling water, potable water, etc. It is not for sewage and streams laden with organics and biological matter that require a different chemical engineering approach to processing and description.
Units Explained: (avoid confusion)
mg/l (milligrams per liter) is weight per volume where 1 mg/L numerically = 1 ppm (as the ion weight) at specific gravity =1. This does not relate chemical equivalency.
ppm as CaCO3 is expressed as the equivalent weight of the ion compared to the equivalent wt. of CaCO3 (100 mol. wt.; 50 eq. wt.).
Example: 1 mg/l of Ca++ [40 mol. wt.] = 2.5 ppm as CaCO3 [(100/40)*(2/2)] note: Ca valence =2.
Example: 1 mg/l of Na+ [23 mol. wt.] = 2.18 ppm as CaCO3 [(100/23)*(1/2)] note Na valence =1.
Example: 1 mg/l of CO3-- [60 mol. wt.] = 1.67 ppm as CaCO3 [(100/60)*(2/2)] note CO3 valence =2.
Example: 1 mg/l of HCO3- [61 mol. wt.] = 0.82 ppm as CaCO3 [(100/61)*(1/2)] note HCO3 valence =1.
Example: 1 mg/l of S+6 [32 mol. wt.] = 9.1 ppm as CaCO3 [(100/32)*(6/2)] note S valence =6.
Law of Electrical Neutrality: Cations must equal Anions (expressed as ppm as CaCO3 or meq/l)
1 m³/hr) = 4.403 gpm; Periodic Table * Power Plant
|Alkalinity is the titration of water with acid, the amount of which is expressed as ppm as CaCO3; generally, the CO3/HCO3 content is assumed to be the entire buffering ions of the titration, which is mostly true. At times, phosphates and other ions come into play. Titrating from high pH to 8.3 gives the CO3 content. Titrating to end point of 4.5 pH gives CO3 and HCO3 total. If starting pH is less than 8.3, there is no CO3. If pH is less than 8.3, then CO2 is also present. At pH 4.5, all HCO3 has been converted to CO2. Above 10.3 pH, OH becomes significant in the titration.
Ex: (MO alkalinity ppm/CO2ppm) = 0.1*(10^(pH-5.3)) where pH >5.2<8.4; ppm = ppm as CaCO3
|Water Analytical Parameters and Methods, typical
pH in the field
Electrical conductance in the field
Temperature in the field
Turbidity in the field
Silica (SiO2 – molybdate reactive)
Silica (SiO2 – colloidal)
Alkalinity as CaCO3 by EPA Method 310.1
Bicarbonate as CaCO3 by EPA Method 310.1
Carbonate as CaCO3 by EPA Method 310.1
Chloride, Fluoride, Nitrate as N, Nitrate + Nitrite as N, Orthophosphate as Phosphorus and Sulfate by EPA Method 300.0
Total Phosphorus by EPA Method 365.2
Total Sulfide by Standard Method SM 4500-S2-
Total Organic Carbon by Standard Method SM 5310-B
Ca, Pb, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, Na by EPA Method 200.8
Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, Si, Ag, Sr, Tl and Zn by EPA Method 200.8
Biochemical Oxygen Demand by EPA Method 405.1
Total Dissolved Solids by EPA Method 160.1
Total Suspended Solids by EPA Method 160.2
Turbidity by EPA Method 180.1
Color by EPA Method 110.2
Tannin and Lignin by Standard Method SM 5550-B
Ammonia as N by EPA Method 350.1
Chemical Oxygen Demand by EPA Method 410.1
Dissolved Inorganic Carbon by EPA Method 310.1